An organic acid produced by bacterial fermentation. Since it is acid, it lowers the pH and thus inhibits the growth of some microorganisms. You can also find acetic acid in your kitchen as a vinegar ingredient. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent smell that is often used to preserve green vegetables and as a seasoning for salads.
An acid-forming bacterium.
A bacterium that tolerates and thrives in an acidic medium.
A group of Gram-positive bacteria that form thin filaments, i.e. hyphae. They are known for their ability to produce many antibiotics.
An antibiotic produced by some actinobacteria. It destroys many bacteria as well as some tumor cells.
(Lat. additivus) substances that are added to food during technological production to preserve the basic properties of smell, taste and consistency. Additives used in industrial processing are not a natural ingredient of the food, but substances of a certain chemical composition that are added to the foods during production, preparation, treatment, processing, shaping, packaging, transport and storage.
Cannot live without the presence of oxygen from the air.
Oxygen living conditions.
The way of transmitting the agent responsible for disease via aerosolized saliva through the air.
Hairloss, or baldness, caused by some harmful effect.
Laryngitis, pharyngitis and tonsillitis.
A group of dermatophytes whose natural host is human, but can also rarely adapt to animal skin conditions.
A drug that kills or inhibits the growth and multiplication of bacteria and is used to prevent and treat bacterial infections. Antibiotics do not work on viruses.
The resistance of bacteria to the effect of antibiotics.
Immunoglobulins produced by plasma cells following antigen exposure.
Foreign substances or parts of microbes introduced into the body that stimulate the production of specific antibodies or sensitized T-lymphocytes.
Compounds that inhibit the growth of, or kill fungi.
Killing a virus or suppressing its ability to multiply by a specific agent or substance.
A pleasant, stimulating smell of drinks, food, tobacco, etc. It is usually derived from essential oils and is often achieved by adding spices.
A type of fungal spore that is formed by breaking up of long filamentous formations called hyphae.
A chronic inflammatory skin disease that occurs in early childhood.


A microscopic, usually single-celled organism, with a simple cell structure.
A collection of multiple colonies (cell clusters) of bacteria grown under controlled (laboratory) conditions.
Antimicrobial peptides (protein substances) with antimicrobial activity to inhibit the growth of related bacterial strains. In their natural environment, bacteria produce bacteriocins to compete against other bacteria for nutrients. Bacteriocin production is one of the important characteristics of probiotic bacteria.
Any antibiotic that contains a four-membered beta-lactam ring in its chemical structure. Many commonly used antibiotics, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems and monobactams, belong to this group.
A mucous cluster of bacteria that has inhabited a certain moist area, i.e. it is attached to a surface.


A mucous formation created by the bacteria itself. It protects the bacteria from the effects of the human defense system.
A bacterium that can cause caries.
(Lat. caseus, cheese) A protein in milk, making up about 80% of cow's milk protein. It is a substance that coagulates and enables the production of cheese. A large casein molecule is composed of several hundred amino acid molecules, which contain several characteristic groups such as hydroxyl, amino, amido and carboxyl groups.
A cell-protective sheath that controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell. It is composed of a lipid bilayer with incorporated proteins.
The outer sheath of cells of bacteria, fungi, algae and higher plants. The cell wall protects and reinforces the cell and determines its shape.
Chlorine is a chemical element that is labelled Cl in the periodic system and occurs naturally as a yellow-green gas. Chlorine compounds are all chemical compounds of chlorine and other elements. Both elemental chlorine and chlorine compounds are used as disinfectants and are still the main disinfectants used to treat water for human consumption.
A procedure whereby a physician inserts a viewing tube into the rectum for the purpose of inspecting the colon.
A bacterium that lives in a community with a human host for its own benefit (food, heat, moisture) without causing any harm to its host.
Any substance which is not intentionally added to food and which is found in that food as a result of the production (including actions carried out in agriculture, livestock and veterinary medicine), of the manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, processing, packaging, transportation or keeping such food or as a result of environmental pollution.
Muscle spasm that most commonly occurs in combination with fever.
Glycoproteins that mediate between cells as signaling molecules; they are secreted by numerous cells in the body in response to internal or external stimuli (e.g. tissue injury or infection).


A defense system of organs, tissues, cells and molecules with the function of distinguishing our tissue from foreign tissue; it protects the organism from microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites and their toxins) as well as from their own altered cells (e.g. tumor cells).
Water is quantitatively the major component of living cells, including bacterial ones (75 - 98%), because it participates in numerous chemical reactions. It also helps to maintain cell pressure and cell shape. The removal of water through drying represents stress for the bacterial cell.
A thin layer of food, saliva, failed cells and bacteria that builds upon the surface of the tooth visible under the nail when you scrape your teeth.
(Greek: Δέρμα, skin; and φυτόν phyton, a plant) a common name for a group of molds that causes changes on the skin and its cornified tissue formations in humans and animals.
Diseases in humans and animals caused by dermatophytes.
A bacterium that remains in pairs following cell division.
Also called "reward hormone" because it is secreted after meeting a certain goal.
High-quality water regularly monitored and is safe to drink because of the added chlorine.
An imbalance in the microbiome composition that can contribute to the onset of a disease.


In ecology, a niche denotes the totality of living and non-living environmental components interacting with an individual or a population.
A microscope that creates an image of a sample by using a beam of accelerated electrons.
The outer surface of the tooth.
Chemicals (proteins) that accelerate chemical reactions.
A population infection limited to an area (smaller), such as a village or town.
A type of cells that covers all external body surfaces and encloses the internal body cavities of multicellular animal or plant organisms.
(Greek εὖ - eu, true; κάρυον – karyon, nucleus) organisms or cells, in which the genetic material is organized into a double membrane-bound nucleus.


Can survive with or without the presence of oxygen from the air.
(Lat. fermentātiō ) is one of the oldest and most important food storage and processing procedures. During fermentation, under the influence of microorganisms, a change in sugar occurs and some new substances are formed.
(Lat. conservare, preserve, maintain) - a process that prevents the spoilage of easily perishable foods for a short or longer period and keeps food from decaying and rotting.


Inflammation of the lining of the stomach.
Complete genetic information encoded by the nucleic acid of the organism (most commonly DNA, but for some viruses it is RNA).
A group of dermatophytes whose natural habitat is the soil, but they can also adapt to the skin conditions of some animals and sometimes humans.
Proteins to which sugars are attached; they have numerous roles in cells.
Bacteria that have a thick cell wall with a high content of a compound called peptidoglycan (murein) and retain the crystal violet dye following the Gram staining procedure.
Have a thinner cell wall, and when the Gram staining procedure is applied, they stain red.
An antibiotic produced by the bacterium Bacillus brevis and is active against many Gram-positive bacteria.


A person who carries a microorganism that causes the disease and transmits it to other persons, but does not display the signs of the disease.
All water that does not contain microorganisms, parasites and/or their developmental forms in a number that poses a risk to human health. It also does not contain harmful substances at concentrations which alone or together with other substances pose a hazard for human health.
A glycoprotein found on the surface of some viruses (eg. influenza viruses). It is crucial for its infectivity because it allows the virus to enter the cell; the name derives from the fact that it causes the agglutination of red blood cells (hemagglutination).
(Lat. Humulus lupulus), a climbing plant used in beer production. It grows in humid places and can grow up to 9 meters high. It can be found next to bushes or along the river, while in controlled cultivation it grows on poles.
An organism in which the agent of the disease multiplies.
A chemical compound consisting of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms (H2O2). It has strong oxidizing properties and oxidizes proteins, DNA and bacterial membrane lipids. Due to its antimicrobial activity, in medicine it is used as an antiseptic.


A defense system of organs, tissues, cells and molecules with the function of distinguishing our tissue from foreign tissue; it protects the organism from microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites and their toxins) as well as from their own altered cells (e.g. tumor cells).
The ability of an organism to defend itself, primarily against microbial diseases. We distinguish between innate immunity, which we gain by birth, and adaptive, which is being formed over the course of life.
Iimmunoglobulins are proteins that are produced by plasma cells as a response of the immune system to the contact with antigens. Immunoglobulin A represents about 10 - 15% of total serum immunoglobulins. It can be found in tears, sweat, saliva, breast milk, bronchial and intestinal secretions. Its role is to protect the respiratory and intestinal tract from viral infections.
Microorganisms that are specific for particular contamination. Indicator microorganisms of faecal contamination naturally belong to the intestinal microbiota of warm-blooded animals. They are present in water whenever a pathogen is present and they are present in greater quantities than pathogens. Additionally, these microorganisms cannot reproduce in the external environment and they can be quickly and easily detected. An example of an indicator microorganism is the bacterium E. coli, whose detection in water indicates faecal contamination.
Digestive system.
Damage to health caused by various natural or synthetic chemical substances (toxins) after their accidental or intentional contact with a living organism.


A fibrous protein that forms the surface parts of the skin and horny tissue formations.


A thick, colorless liquid present in sour milk, cheese, sauerkraut and ensilaged fodder.
An optical device that allows observing objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye.
The activity of enzymes that carry out lipolysis. Lipolysis is a lipid (fat) degradation process through which triacylglycerols are hydrolyzed into free fatty acids and glycerol, followed by conversion into acetyl units.
Lymphatic cells, the main participants in specific immunity.
The process of drying the frozen bacteria, whereby water is removed by sublimation. The lyophilization process consists of two phases: freezing of bacteria and drying of frozen bacteria in a vacuum at low temperatures (sublimation). Lyophilization of bacteria stops their metabolism by putting them into a resting state. Freeze-dried bacteria can be stored for more than a year while maintaining the initial number of live bacteria in the preparation. The bacteria return from the dry state to the active state by adding water, i.e. rehydration.
Protective agents used while freezing, drying and protecting cells from high osmolarity.


A type of leukocytes whose primary task is to expose phagocytized antigens on its surface and present them to lymphocytes; this triggers immune responses of T- and B-lymphocytes.
(Lat. malum, apple, Russian: kislyj, acid), an organic acid present in acidic fruits such as the apple.
Dried barley grain.
Also called "the sleep hormone" or "night happiness hormone" (“hormone of darkness”) because it regulates our sleep-wake cycle.
An infection caused by the passage of a meningococcal bacterium into a person's blood.
A type of antibiotic related to penicillin that works against some staphylococci.
Requires very low concentrations of oxygen from the air for growth.
Microbes or microorganisms are tiny living things (bacteria, archaea, protozoans, single-celled algae and fungi, viruses), too small to be seen with the naked eye. They can be found all around us - in the water, soil, air and the human body. Some microbes make us sick, but others are important for our health.
A set of genes of all microbes present in a particular environment.
All microorganisms present both in and on the surfaces of the human body, or in or on some part of the body (skin microbiota, oral cavity microbiota, intestinal microbiota, etc.).
Microscopically small fungi.
Dermatophytosis caused by the species of genera Microsporum.
Characteristics such as shape, mutual arrangement of cells, special extensions (filaments) that differentiate between fungi.
A special microscopic microbe that belongs to the kingdom Fungi and grows, for example, on moist foods.
(Lat. mutare, which means to alter) - alteration in the genome; in viruses it frequently results in the emergence of a new strain.
Lat. mycelium, derived from Greek: mύϰης, filamentous branched structure of the majority of the fungi.
The diagnostic procedure to confirm the presence or absence of fungi in a sample.


A tube introduced through the stomach into the small intestine.
Process by which the environment, as the selective force, selects the most adapted variant (individuals, genes, behaviors, etc.).
An enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus that allows the virus to escape from the host cell and spread further.
Natural or artificial medium for the cultivation of microbes under laboratory conditions.
The total amount of energy, macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in food. It defines everything that we ingest with a particular food item.


A phenolic compound which provides the bitter flavor in olives. It has been shown that oleuropein has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the human body and that it reduces the likelihood of heart disease.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic whose antibacterial activity is based on the inhibition of ribosome function and is effective against numerous Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
A gas whose molecule is composed of 3 oxygen atoms. Ozone is present in the atmosphere and absorbs a certain wavelength of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, but it can also be used to disinfect water.


The spread of disease (most commonly infectious) in a larger area, such as a continent or worldwide.
How the dermatophyte lives on the organism infected by it.
Capable of causing disease.
A bacterium that causes or may cause infectious disease.
A microbe that causes a disease, such as a virus or a bacterium.
The first antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial diseases which is still widely used today because of its low toxicity to humans and its powerful effects.
A chemical compound similar to proteins that, unlike proteins, consists of a smaller number of the interconnected amino acids.
(Greek: phagein - to eat; cyte - a biological suffix denoting “cell”). Phagocytes are all cells that are capable of destroying certain microorganisms, other cells and different foreign particles in the organism. They do this by enclosing the aforementioned objects with amoeboid movements of their protoplasm, embedding them in the vacuole, and decomposing them by the action of enzymes and hydrogen peroxide. Phagocytes are mostly found in the liver, spleen and lymph nodes where they cleanse blood and lymph from bacteria and other particles.
An intolerance of artificial and/or natural light; a painful sensation caused by light.
Differentiated B-lymphocyte cells that secrete antibodies.
A disease that affects the lungs and is manifested by fever, chills, tremors and cough with purulent or bloody sputum. Pneumonia is caused by the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens, as well as by viruses and fungi.
Non-digestible carbohydrates that serve as an energy source to the beneficial bacteria that make up the gut microbiota. They also favor the introduced probiotic bacteria in the intestinal tract.
Chemicals that prevent the spoilage (decay) of food, i.e. the use of various substances to stop the development of microorganisms.
Small protein particles that cause dangerous infectious diseases in animals and humans.
Usually lactic acid bacteria, useful live microorganisms that we consume because of their beneficial effects on health.
The process of degradation of proteins to amino acids by the action of proteolytic enzymes.
A diverse group of single-celled eukaryotic organisms.
A severe disease of the colon with characteristic membranes on the mucosa that bleed easily.
The exchange of genome segments between different viruses (e.g. between different virus strains with a segmented genome).
Public sewage system includes the collection of sanitary, industrial and wastewater and their drainage to the water treatment system.


A mechanism used for communication by bacteria living in a community, i.e in a biofilm. Using chemical signals, bacteria communicate with each other about the threats they face (cleansers, high temperature, etc.).


A system of organs used for gas exchange.
Rhizopods are heterotrophic (taking food from the environment) single-celled organisms which shape is not permanent because they extend and retract their root-like pseudopods (false feet).
A biologically important type of molecule consisting of covalently linked nucleotide units (differs from DNA in that it contains sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose and a nitrogen base uracil instead of thymine).


Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth or bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine is an increase in the number of bacteria or presence of unusual microbes in the small intestine.
When the dermatophyte lives outside of a living organism.
Streptococcal angina accompanied by a rash on the body.
A disease caused by a vitamin C deficiency , which is required for the production of collagen. Collagen is one of the proteins that make up connective tissue. If the collagen is not properly synthesized, the connective tissue does not have the necessary strength, therefore, the symptoms of the disease appear.
A scientific discipline that evaluates the food products based on the reactions to those characteristics of food as they are perceived by the senses of sight, taste, smell, touch and hearing.
Also known as "happiness hormone" because it increases self-confidence and reduces insecurity.
This adjective denotes a sedentary lifestyle, that is, when a species is attached to a particular area, e.g. marine sponge or bacteria in a biofilm.
A form of the bacterium or a fungus that helps it survive adverse conditions.
Preparations containing live microorganisms, used for the preparation of various fermented foods to enrich food with different products of the metabolism.
A population within a species with a set of traits by which it is distinguished from other populations; mutant within a specific subtype.
One that forms spores that allow it to survive under adverse environmental conditions.
The process of direct transition from a solid state to gaseous state under reduced pressure.
A bacterium that can cause disease and is resistant to the activity of all or the majority of the known antibiotics.
Animals that can be infected by a particular type of microbe.
A permanent or temporary living community of two organisms of different species (symbionts). It is also usually a synonym for a commensal relationship (at least one member benefits while the other is unaffected) or a mutualistic relationship (both community members benefit).


Cells that play a key role in specific cellular immunity. They are called T-lymphocytes or T-cells because they mature in the thymus. T-lymphocytes exert numerous functions that allow normal functioning of the body’s immune defense. They work together with B-lymphocytes and a variety of other cells and molecules that are involved in the defense of the body.
A device for measuring temperature.
A disease of dental hard tissues that looks like a black spot that we notice on the outer surface of the tooth.
Substances created by living organisms: plants (phytotoxins), animals (zootoxins), poisonous fungi (mycotoxins) or bacteria (bacterial toxins) and are harmful to other organisms.
Dermatophytosis caused by a species of genera Trichophyton.
Also referred to as drought, it is a contagious disease which occurs in mammals and birds and affects all organs, especially the lungs. Tuberculosis in humans is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


This term is characterized by sound waves above 20,000 Hz. Humans cannot hear that sound, but other mammals such as dolphins use ultrasound for orientation. Ultrasound is also used in medicine to display formations within the body.
UV radiation is electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths of 100 to 400 nanometers. The largest source of UV radiation is the sun. It is often used for disinfection.


The administration of a vaccine to develop protection from a specific disease; substances are introduced into the body that stimulate our immune system to create disease resistance and produce antibodies.
A preparation containing weakened or inactivated microbes or their antigenic components and is used to acquire active immunity to a particular disease.
A long nerve that connects the digestive system, lungs, and heart to the brain.
An entire virus particle that is capable of causing infection, i.e. is infectious.
Agents of plant diseases, smaller and simpler than viruses.
The degree of pathogenicity of a microbe or the ability of a microorganism to cause disease. It depends on the dose, penetration site, and distribution pathways in the body, as well as on the age, immune status, and type of host.
A branch of biology that studies viruses, but also subviral pathogens (viroids and prions).
A microbe, usually smaller than a bacterium, that can only multiply in a living cell.
A category within a virus type defined by a combination of different types of hemagglutinin and neuraminidases on the surface of a virus particle.


A process of adding chemicals called coagulants, to promote the clumping of fine particles with a diameter of less than 0.02 mm into larger floc to easily eliminate such impurities.
A process that minimizes the number of microorganisms in water for the protection of human health.
Filtration or seepage of water is the process of filtering water through a porous medium (gravel, sand, charcoal, etc.) to remove larger non-living particles and microorganisms (primarily bacteria) that have remained after the deposition process.
The process of slow mixing, bringing the small particles together to form larger particles called flocs.
The process by which most of the impurities that settle to the bottom are separated.
A mixture of malt and hops.


A disease which can be transmitted to humans from vertebrates (animals that have a backbone or spinal column).
A group of dermatophytes whose natural host are animals, but it is not uncommon to infect humans.